Fair use of copyright materials
Copyright laws of many nations and various international agreements provide for “Fair Use” Uses of Copyrighted Works. Fair Use usually takes the form of (but is not limited to) brief quotations or summaries and is used for research purposes, criticism, comment, news reporting by journalists, or in the pursuit of knowledge discovery. Excerpts of copyrighted material may be duplicated in print or electronic media including websites within the bounds of Fair Use practices. In all cases, proper citation of the source is required.
Although copyrighted material is typically labeled as specifically ‘not for use in any form without prior written permission’, the courts have consistently upheld that the principle of Fair Use permits short excerpts from copyrighted materials to be used without the necessity of first actually obtaining permission.
This established principle of ‘fair use’ excerpting of brief sections of material with credit to their source for research and knowledge discovery purposes is the umbrella under which all search engines, news, commentary, and blog sites operate on the Internet.
This site strives to operate in good faith strictly within both the letter and spirit of the Fair Use agreements by specifically:
- strictly limiting excerpted quotations (typically no more than an absolute maximum of 500 characters including spaces and punctuation from any given document). This usually averages out to about 100 words maximum; and
- giving full credit (attribution) to both publisher (the website) and locations (URLs) of the documents it indexes.
Copyright and Intellectual Property Agent for Notice
We respect the intellectual property of others, and we ask you to do the same. It is our policy to respond to notices of alleged infringement and to comply with all valid concerns in an appropriate manner, including removal or disabling of access to material claimed to be the subject of infringing activity. If you believe that your work has been copied in a way that constitutes copyright infringement (i.e., you find material you own on this site presented in a manner that you claim to be outside the principle of ‘fair use’ as explained above), please provide our Copyright Agent the following information:
- An electronic or physical signature of the person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of the copyright interest;
- A description of the copyrighted work that you claim has been infringed;
- A description of where the material that you claim is infringing is located on the Site;
- Your address, telephone number, and email address;
- A statement by you that you have a good faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law; and
- A statement by you, made under penalty of perjury, that the above information in your Notice is accurate and that you are the copyright owner or authorized to act on the copyright owner’s behalf.
Our Copyright Agent for Notice of claims of copyright infringement on the Site can be reached through our contact us page.